Definition :The correct position of the organs of speech in order to produce a letter so that it can be differentiated from others. This is equally so whether the letter is a consonant or a vowel.
Being able to recite the letters correctly is the foundation of tajweed, and this is achieved by knowing where the sound originates. This can then help in practising the pronunciation of the letters correctly.
The diagram below gives a snapshot of where each letter originates :
However, Makhaarij must be used hand in hand with sifa (characteristics of the letter) in order to pronounce the letter completely and correctly, as the Makhraj provides the origin and the Sifa provides extra information required to pronounce the letter properly.
To achieve the correct makhraj of a letter, practise via placing a sukoon () on it, and precede it with an alif / hamzah with a kasrah ().
There are 5 main categories of Makhaarij :
This is all the empty space that occurs from the chest, up the throat and out through the mouth.
It is the makhraj of the long vowels sounds (also known as the elongated letters) and is elongated for 2 counts:
These letters are also found in the Qur'an :
NB in the Qur'an, the sukoon may not always be shown on the letter, but as a general rule, whenever a letter does not carry a vowel, it means that it has a sukoon, even if it is not actually present.
In the throat there are 3 makhaarij and each one has 2 letters:
Remember to practise pronouncing letters by placing a sukoon in front of the letter as shown.
Many letters come from the mouth: that is the tongue and its connection with the different areas of the teeth and mouth
There are 4 main makhaarij that can be divided into 10 sub-categories:
This is simply the lips, and has 2 sub-categories:
The nasal cavity is located at the furthest point of the nose (the bridge of the nose). It is the opening that connects the mouth w ith the nose. This connection is where the ghunnah exits. The ghunnah is a sound that is resonated and the tongue is not used to produce it . The duration of the ghunnah sound is for 2 counts.
The ghunnah is produced in the following cases:
Ensure that the following letters are differentiated and pronounced correctly.
Click on the 'Summary Chart ' link on the right hand sidebar to view a summarised chart for the sub-divisions of Makhaarij